In simple terms, the Agtron is used to classify coffee roast and determine the roast consistency.
It uses near infrared light to analyse the color of ground or whole bean coffee. It will then give a numerical (whole) value, which represents the degree of roast. The lower the number, the darker the roast.
There are no industry accepted standards to determine the roast. Some roasters may use Agtron, some their own and different colour readers. It is an expensive piece of kit, which we may find only amongst the big roasters.