LMSC Feed forward / predictive and AI based. Both will be expensive for home users, if it all they can achieve / re-produce a similar outcome the PID.
Absolutely, especially when dealing with a system such as a coffee machine…The main solutions for stability are either very very good software, or larger boilers. Larger boilers are easier.
Of course we are entering a time when energy prices are going up and more economical machines are going to be important…I suspect some may start implementing ECO modes on their machines. With the Nurri Lever, I turn it off after I use it, because there is only a 15m warmup.
I wonder when the time will come for an electrically heated E61, something I have been thinking about, especially ways that could be possible. The E61 uses about 80 watts of heat to stay warm, and takes 30m t be warm enough for coffee. I’ve done some rough calculations, taking in all the considerations and I think such a group could be heated in about 12M with group heaters of 200W+ max power rating…..now I just need to convince someone.